Friday, 31 March 2023

The History of Hepmonaland, Part 1 (-10,000 to -422 CY)

“It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.”
― Leon C. Megginson

Little light filters down through the high canopy. What does bathes the tangled undergrowth in perpetual twilight. One might say shadow reigns. Shadow and suffocating gloom. Indeed, it is fetid, a suspended sweltering descending heavily through the tangle of branch and leaf that twist and hover above, layer over layer, as far as the eye cannot see. Chittering and howls, cackles and clacks and distant roars raise hackles, deceptively distant, yet as close as behind the arthritic roots that scamper underfoot. It is no wonder why, for long centuries, the shores of Hepmonaland deterred even the most curious from penetrating its defensive wall of shore. Tales of lost expeditions and withering disease frightened off all but the most adventurous, and the most avaricious, from venturing into that Dark Continent.
For several months, possibly even years, there have been reports of banditry in the jungles to the south. Merchants carrying precious loads of rare goods from the jungle lands have been way laid, their goods taken and their men captured or killed. Even then, those who survived these raids had to face headhunters, brain fever, giant leeches, cannibals, and leopards. Few men ever returned.
The stories they told were fantastic and addled, surely brought about by disease and the horrors with which they had to deal. Singing snakes, twisted and deformed ape-men. men who were not men, and writhing, horrid flowers filled their tales – surely such things were not to be believed. […]
Trees grow 100 to 200 feet high and are draped with lianas, orchids, ferns, and moss. More ferns and fungus grow heavily on the Jungle floor. Streams cascade down the slopes to fill swampy areas in the valleys. Snakes, birds, spiders, and insects populate the area. [I1 Dwellers of the Forbidden City – 2]

To paint Hepmonaland with that singular brush would be in error. There is more to Hepmonaland than jungle, more than mystery and fear. It is a body as varied as the Flanaess.
Hepmonaland is actually a minor continent, the smallest of the four on Oerth. [LGG – 4]
One imagines that few have braved its dark depths; in that you would be wrong. It is a cradle of civilisation, mayhap the first, home of the Olman and Tuov and their nations and empires. But the mighty nations of the Flanaess could never imagine such possibilities, gazing at the dense mists that veiled the tall, formidable jungle across the Tilva Strait, from whence those howls and crackles and chittering drift.
How long ago did civilisation bloom under that canopy? Long ago, long before the Olman’s and the Tuov’s.
Indeed, the first hint of civilisation is not even human. They say that troglodytes ruled the jungles, and beastmen.

Dakon - Beastmen
c. -10,000 CY
Beastman tribes tend to keep to themselves, communicating only with other beastman tribes. They use and produce few artifacts, and hence have little interest in trade. They speak their own language, but a few individuals can converse haltingly in the common tongue. The bulk of their population seems to be in the Amedio Jungle, although there are reputed to be beastmen tribes in the jungles of Hepmonaland as well. [GA – 21]
How civilised were they? One wonders. The jungle decays everything but stone. And even stone is soon invaded by a persistent growth, the roots finding purchase, inveigling, penetrating, cracking and crumbling all but the most enduring of construction.

Were those beastmen the first to pile one stone upon the other? I doubt it. They may have only squatted in what came before.
c. -8000 CY
Who then did? Legends say the Torhoon, the Tall Walkers.
Their earliest mention is by Andy Miller in Ex Keraptis Cum Amore, in Dungeon #77 (December 1999):
The Torhoon
[A]n ancient race called the Torhoon (whose empire, based on alchemy and magic, was centered in Hepmonaland over 8,000 years ago), the mad lich [Orlysse] crafted his dungeon on their writings and style. He strove to make the dungeon seem authentically ancient, going so far as to use the ancient Torhoon language in his riddles and fill the place with Torhoon artifacts of his own.
[Dungeon #77 – 33]
Only a comprehend languages spell or similar magic allows the PCs to decipher the ancient, dead language of the Torhoon. [Dungeon #77 – 34]
Who were these Torhoon? According to Andy Miller, they were human:
A [7’] tall man suddenly appears in front to you. He is human, although his body is hairless and his features are slightly elongated. He wears a loose, black toga and watches you with large, unblinking eyes. [Dungeon #77 – 48]
One such was the despotic sorcerer Kellex Zyrrinyth, who lived more than 8,000 years ago. [Dungeon #77 – 47]
Little else is mentioned. There are references to Torhoon writings and pyramids and Torhoon wights and mummies and mists, of Torhoon magic and alchemy, although none of it differs much from contemporary versions, except that Orlysse could not duplicate all of the spells known to the ancient Torhoon sorcerers. [Dungeon #77 – 53]
Andy Miller is somewhat vague as to who and what they were. It’s all well and good to make references to the past, but those references ought to have some concrete anchor in canon, to my mind. One wonders – I do, anyway – whether Mr. Miller and Mr. Sean Reynolds were working hand in hand when Sean made these comments in his The Scarlet Brotherhood accessory, of the same year:
Southern Hepmonaland
Onave, the youngest son of King Onatal […] found […] strange writings in the earth [in the hills of Imianme.]
[SB – 51]
[A]n oddly-constructed ruin near the [Okeo] hills is said to have been built by an ancient race of people that predate the Tuov, possibly the ones the people of Banyo call “The Tall Walkers.” [SB – 58]
Reports surface from time to time of unusual ships on Byanbos shores piloted by beings the locals call “The Tall Walkers.” [SB – 48]
Are the Tall Walkers and the Torhoon one and the same? Maybe. They could very well be.
The Tall Walkers could, in contemporary times, presumably be the Suel, seeing that there are no other mentions of the Torhoon ever again, but they are most likely not. The Suel are referred to as the white-skinned northerners [SB – 50] and the ”white demons” [SB – 48] by the Tuov.
So, who then were they?
I shall table a theory, seeing that no other writer of Greyhawk lore chose to address this: The humans of the southeast are all descended from one stock, the Torhoon. Where did they come from? That is lost to time. Speculate as you will, by I like to think that they were servants of a long-ago departed or deceased proto-reptilian species that tinkered with genetics. Nothing is known now of either, but the very sight of their artifacts still cause terror in the minds of humans and demihumans, alike. The Suel, in their strange aspect and cruelty, terrify the Tuov, so it’s not outside the realm of possibility that the Tuov are applying their ancient “boogieman” to these newcomers.

-6233 CY
What became of the Torhoon? Your guess is as good as mine; but, as is usually the case, Torhoon civilisation collapsed, whether by war, internal strife, by the maleficence of their most powerful and misguided. Left to their own devices, those who survived invariably rose again, if by a new name.
The Kersi
A group of beautiful dark skinned humans called Kersi from over the southern sea from a large island continent they called AnaKeri arrived on the southern portion of the Flanaess in large wooden platformed outriggers.
(-717 SD) [OJ1 – 5]
Could the Kersi be the Olman?
The Olman of Hepmonaland have rich red-brown or dark-brown skin, straight hair and dark brown eyes. They have high sheekbones and high-bridged noses, although those of more common stock have less definition in these characteristics. [SB – 36]
Why not? It’s not like the Olman appeared out of thin air. Unless they did, that is, which is unlikely, but stranger things have happened. The Rhennee did, after all; so it’s not without precedence. But I imagine that the Olman did not, that the Olman had always been there, whether called Almek or Olman or Kersi.

-6067 CY
Time passes and the Kersi will not be contained under their canopy. Plentiful azure seas lured them out from their coasts. An open sky, strings of islands, banks and shoals. Then to the Tilva, the Tilvenot, the Duxchans, the Olmans. And upon those southern seas they were sure to meet others as eager to explore as they.
The Se-Ul began systematized trading with the tribes to the north and east. The Baklun in the northern plains, and the Flan who dwelt just west of the mountains were among these. Sea trade routes to AnaKeri are developed.  The Thirteen Cities of the Suel develop into separate city-states, but all are ruled by a single council of lords under the watchful eye of the grey elves, watchfulness that men begin to dislike intensely. (-551 SD) [OJ1 – 5]

The South Seas
-5531 CY
Were the Suloise more advanced than the Kersi? Possibly. The Suel had been tutored by the Grey Elves. One might imagine, however, that the Kersi had a history, a Torhoon history, and that they had skills of their own. But that is speculation. What is known is that the Suel saw the world they ventured out into as a place to be conquered.
After a series of strong "First Protectors" and the development of the interior lands, First Protector Alianor-b-Hurn turns his eyes outward, and desires more control of the trade goods. He first attacks the settlements of the Kersi to the south, and proclaims their lands forfeit to the Seul peoples. He then begins planning "The great invasion" of AnaKeri. (-15 SD) [OJ11 – 56]

-5528 CY
A Maelstrom of Wind and Wild Seas
Hubris reigned in the lands of the Suloise, as they sought to conquer all the peoples of the world. But the Kersi and AnaKeri remembered their Torhoon past.
Alianor sends a large naval force to invade AnaKeri.  The outriggers of the AnaKeri are no matches for the mighty warships of the Suel.  As the massive armada approaches the clerics of the AnaKeri call upon the elemental princes for protection.  The princes encircle the island continent with a maelstrom of wind and wild seas and much of the invading fleet is destroyed.  Those that do land are met with upheavals in the land itself and, at last, by beings of elemental fire.  A few of the invaders return to tell the tale.  The wall of wind and water remains behind circling the continent of AnaKeri to this very day. (-12 SD) [OJ11 – 56]

c. -2400 CY
Had the reptiles disappeared from the Oerth? Far from it. Troglodytes had inherited the jungles before the beastmen and the Torhoon. However, they were greatly diminished with the cooling of Oerik. Millenia had passed since the continent was the hot, humid, steamy tangle of growth it once was. Ice had flowed from the northern reaches, not once, not twice, but thrice; and the reptiles had retreated to more hospitable climes, finding a more habitable home under the canopies of Hepmonaland and the Amedio. There they thrived, as they had where tundra grasses and temperate woodlands now flourished. It comes then, to no surprise, that even as humans cut their first stones, and sharpened their first sticks, and kindled their first fires, that troglodytes were erecting ziggurats amid sprawling cities, and staking empires.
The Olman and the Amedian are not the first intelligent races to rule the Amedio jungle. Fragmentary records from the Olman city of Tamoachan and other sites indicate that the earliest civilization of this region belonged to a race of reptiles almost identical to modern-day troglodytes. These beings lived more than three thousand years ago and were evil and quarrelsome. Worshipping various demon princes, they claimed trophies such as skulls and skins from their enemies—normally rival tribes that worshipped demon princes—and developed advanced means of mummification; preserved bodies of animals and the ancient troglodytes appear in certain sites, and writings imply that their sorcerer-kings had themselves mummified in hopes of continuing beyond death. [SB – 62]

c. –2400s
Gods need worshippers. It is a simple fact. They diminish and die without them. So, it comes as no surprise that those who’ve misplaced theirs must find others. And it comes as no surprise that these gods should look exactly like these new worshippers. Or so they would have us believe. According to Olman legend, this is about the time that the Olman gods discovered Oerth and the Olman peoples. So, one wonders: where did these Olman gods come from? Without? Or within?
The Olman gods are not native to Oerth, having been worshipped first by beings on another prime material plane. At some point around 3000 years ago, these gods discovered Oerth and the Olman people, and revealed themselves as supernatural beings to the primitive Olman. [SB – 42]

Camazotz, god of bats
Huhueteotl, god of Fire and Motion of Time
Mictlantecuhtli, god of Death
Quetzalcoatl, god of the Air, Birds, and Snakes
Tezctlipoca, god of the Sun, Moon, Night, Scheming and Betrayals
Tlaloc, god of Rain
[SB – 42,43]

Who are the Olman People, anyway? They are an old people, indeed, as old as the Suel, as old as the Flan. Are they an off-shoot of the Flan? Have they the same ancestral root?
Some consider the Olman to be distantly related to the Flan, but there is of yet little evidence to corroborate this. [SB – 36]
Who can say? The origins of man and elves, as are the origins of Oerth and Oerik, a mystery.
Most agree on this: The gods created Oerik. The gods created Man. The gods created etc. Maybe. Then again, maybe not.
The Olman might have shared a common ancestor with the Flan, but they are not Flan.
The Olman originated on Hepmonaland, raising a number of city-states from the jungles of that land. Through centuries of warfare, they built an empire that spanned northern Hepmonaland and reached across the Densac Gulf to include the Amedio Jungle. [LGG – 6]
They do look somewhat like the Flan.
Pure Flan have bronze skin, varying from a light copper hue to a dark, deep brown. Flan eyes are usually dark brown, black, brown, or amber. Hair is wavy or curly and typically black or brown (or any shade between). The Flan have broad, strong faces and sturdy builds. [LGG – 5]
A little. But not entirely.
The Olman have skin of a rich red-brown or dark brown color. Their hair is always straight and black, and their eyes are dark, from medium brown to nearly black. Olman have high cheekbones and high-bridged noses, a trait less strong in those of common birth. Some nobles still flatten the foreheads of their young, for a high, sloping shape is considered beautiful. [LGG – 6]

Were these Olman civilised? Did they erect ziggurats to their gods? Or did they still cling to those few clearings in their jungle, or upon reed rafts in vast swamps and estuaries, eking out existence where beastmen and troglodytes did not still reign?
Savages from the Amedio Jungle or Hepmonaland would have skills in long distance signaling, running, possibly paddled small craft, sound imitation, and trap building. Their required initial weapons would also include the blowgun or short bow, club, and dart or javelin in the Amedio. With respect to Hepmonaland, the atlatl and javelin, club, and short sword are typical weapons. [Dragon #63 – 11]

Tied to the land, they sought to tame it.
Jungle Druid
WG: Amedio Jungle, Hepmonaland [Dragon #209 – 14]

And in time master it.
Skull-Staff of Hepmonaland (C, M): This is a 7‘ long pole that is topped with a skull with a wild mane of white hair and sharp, demonic features. The shaman who uses the staff claims that it is the skull of an ancient demon, though many suspect that it belonged to an evil wizard who died in the hands of head-hunters in Hepmonaland. [GA – 74]

Cloak of the Couatl
This item is a short cloak made of couatl feathers. [It allows] the wearer to fly [, and] become invisible at will [.] This item is normally only found in Hepmonaland and the Amedio. [SB – 86]

-2269 CY
The Suloise claimed dominion over dragonkind, and command of all humanity was within their grasp.
The years of Conquest and Prosperity begin. No major foe opposes the might of the empire of the Seuloise, although they do not push Eastward, because of some fear of the Elven hosts. Magic is rigorously pursued. Old Grey Elven texts are discovered and studied. The might and haughtiness of the Elves is copied in manner in the courts; their wisdom is not. Slavery becomes common and widespread in the Seuloise lands; this continues for many centuries. The Flanae in the southeast (just west of the Hellfurnaces), the Oerid to the east, the Kersi (the long distant descendants of those who first sailed from AnaKeri) to the south, and the Baklun to the north, and several unnamed small tribes to the west all fall under the grip of the Seuloise fist. The entire of the western half of Oerik, is controlled by the Seul. But the drow and darker forces, and a fear of other elves, halt the eastern expansion. (3247 SD) [OJ1 – 57,58]

-2266 CY
Did the Flan find birth in the West? Or the East? Did they spill out upon the Flanaess, or had they venture west until they found and scaled the mountains there, only to discover the cruelty of the Suel? Wherever and whatever their long-lost origins, the Flan escaped Suloise dominion. Those who did poured over the Hellfurnaces, where history tells us that they met the elves, and the dwarves.
The Flanae, under the protection of Beory, Pelor and Rao flee their lands in mass, making a perilous crossing of the Hellfurnaces. They move North into the lands of Eastern Oerik, later called the Flanaess, as the first human inhabitants of the area. Initially, they are well received by the demi-humans. (3250 SD) [OJ1 – 13,58]

-1932 CY
Before long, they found waters that spanned the whole of the Oerth. Or perhaps they had always been there. It was upon the shores of these waters, they would soon discover that there were more peoples upon this Oerth than they had hitherto believed to be true.
The first reports of strange cities to the south worshipping strange gods are reported by the Flanae. These people (according to Flan sources) call themselves Almeks (Olmec in the Common tongue). (3584 SD/215 FT) [OJ1 – 13]
These Almek were not the Kersi, they discovered. Nor were they native to the Flaneass. They had sailed from a far-off land, a hot, jungled land, one they gestured to lay many days journey to the east. Although great effort was made, neither could make themselves understood, except in the most rudimentary way, as neither spoke the tongue of the other.
Where were these shores? One imagines they were close to where the Flan had presumably first settled in the Flanaess: Keoland.

The Azure Sea
c –1900s
These Almek were indeed from a far-off land. They were not alone there, either.
As in most places on Oerth, the first human occupants [of Hepmonoland] are lost to the mists of time. By two and a half thousand years ago, the tribes of Touv wandered the [savannah] and lower jungles of Hepmonaland, farming small plots and chasing herds of wild cattle. In the deeper jungles to the north, similarly uncivilized tribes of Olman warred with each other and built shrines to their gods, occasionally discovering or destroying a ruin their legends said had been built by a bat-like humanoid race that had left or been exterminated several hundred years before. [SB – 36]

The Tuov
The Touv people have dark brown or black skin, blue or brown eyes, with black eyes being rare; and straight or wavy hair. They have rounded facial features and are typically shorter than most people of the Flanaess, with the tallest Touv reaching about 5’10” in height. While most Touv males do not have facial hair, certain subgroups can grow beards from their chins. Women’s figures are often rounded and lush.
[SB – 36]
The Touv people as a whole avoid traveling the sea. [SB – 37]

They too had their gods, gods that painted or mirrored their perception of their world.
Berna, demigoddess of Passion and Forgiveness
Breeka, goddess of Living Things
Damaran, demigod of Vermin and Cowardice
Katay, god of Decay, Inevitability, order and Time
Kundo, god of Building, Noise, Music, and Defense
Meyanok, god of Serpents, Poison, Discord, Darkness, and Famine
Nola, goddess of the Sun
Uvot, god of prosperity
Vara, demigoddess of Nightmanes and Fear
Vogon, god of Weather and Storms
Xanag, god of Metals and Beauty
[SB – 40,41]

c –1900 to –1500 CY
But where the Suel and the Flan had discovered the secret of bronze, and the fashioning of weapons with it, the Olman of Hepmonaland had not. But they marvelled at the slim, shining stone that the Flan had carried; and they sought to divine the secret of it themselves. Its discovery changed them. Their weapons were no longer blunt wood and stone. They were sharp, and their keen edge allowed those tribes that wielded them to conquer the others.
Over the next 400 years, the Olman learned to work stone and bronze and built great cities in the heart of the jungle—clearing land around them for farming—and raising great temples to honor their deities. Four Olman city-states formed from the original tribes, and all delighted in warring on each other, claiming prisoners as live sacrifices. The northernmost nation, Xuxulieto, was broken by a combined effort of two of its neighbors, and the resources were divided up among the survivors; its capital was abandoned and soon overrun by humanoids. [SB – 36]

Dwellers of the Forbidden City (I1) is set within Hepmonaland at hex Y-109. [FtAA – 72]

-1408 CY
Long had the Tuov wandered the savannah, tending their herds before they too settled, raising cities of their own, crowning their first king in Kundanol. Thus was the kingdom of Kunda born.
The start date for the Touv calendar is the crowning of the first Touv King in Kundanol; this date is year 1 to the Touv, […] or approximately 1408 years before 1 CY. Before the uniting of the Touv tribes, several families or priesthoods employed unique calendars, but these alternatives have fallen from usage and been forgotten in the intervening millennia. (4108 SD/ 743 FT) [SB – 38]

Onatal consolidated his power, and decreed those beneath him to increase those lands he deemed should be his. For was not his the strongest of the Tuov tribes? Before long, the whole of the savannah should be his, unto and into the jungles in the north, unto the sea. And beyond. Where he faced those who took umbrage to his claim.
When Onatal, First king of the Kunda, defeated his brother Onak for rulership of the Touv people, he sent his brother northward to start a new city. Onak found a fertile plain inhabited by wild cattle at the foot of the river Ake, and claimed it in the names of himself and his brother. The city he built prospered despite occasional attacks by sahuagin, and tribute flowed regularly back to Kundanol [.] [SB – 50]

When the first king of the Kunda was crowned, Onave, the youngest son of King Onatal, was sent to the hills of Imianme to discover what creatures lived there. He and his family found curious beasts, strange writings in the earth, and great caves that were the source of many precious stones After sending his eldest son back to the king to tell of this place, Onave and his wife built the first houses of Kundaxi. [SB – 51]
There they are, those strange and ancient writings. Etched by an unknown “hand.” By the Torhoon? Perhaps. But might this writing find its origin in something even more ancient? Something more sinister?

Something serpentine?
-1400 to -1200 CY
The Kundali began to settle a larger and larger area, eventually coming into contact with the martial Olman states to the north. Replused by the Olman use of human sacrifice and their worship of a serpent god – the primary Touv evil god was Meyanok, a serpent-deity – the Kundali declared war upon the Olman. [SB – 36]
Might the Tuov’s oldest legends be replete with Tall Walkers, with snakes and serpents and elder reptiles so evil that they could not help but be repulsed at their first sight?

-1250 CY
Not all Tuov wished to live under the benevolent rule of the kings of Kunda. Few were allowed the luxury not to, but there were a few who proved the exception. (159 TC)
Iyapo was created as a private woodland retreat by Arakay, one of the rare Kunda wizards. When logging encroached on the retreat, the wizard moved on but left his fortifications behind, and the loggers moved in. Extensive logging eventually cleared the forest, but by that time it had become a well-developed city with many secondary businesses and farms, ranches and villages sprang up along the road to Kundaxa. Iyapo was declared an official city-state by the kingdom in -1250 CY. It still supports a disproportionate number of wizards. [SB – 50]
One wonders why Kunda wizards are so rare? It’s not that they are not able. Might memory of the Torhoon be at that root?

c. -1125 CY
The ancient kingdom of Ahlissa, ruled by the Flan and easily conquered by Aerdy, is known today only for its founding wizard-queen, Ehlissa the Enchantress, and a magical nightingale she made. [LGG – 13]
[T]he Flan […] inhabitants […] had controlled these islands and plied the surrounding waters for centuries. [LGG – 70]
Were the Olman aware of what transpired north of their canopied continent? Of Flan domination of the Flanaess? Ahlissa, after all, was but a stone throw away. And had not Ahlissa’s ships plied the waters for centuries. Had not the Olman? They had; indeed the “Almek” had long ago landed upon Flan shores as far flung as those that would one day be Keoland’s.

-1100 CY
The Almek had long ago landed on foreign shores? Did they stop there? Surely not; how else could they have known of far Amedio, had they not landed there? This was fortuitous, as there were those among the Olman who were preoccupied with secrets that once buried, ought to have remained forgotten.
Approximately -1100 CY, a century before the great Olman migration into the Amedio jungle, the high priests of the city-states of Alocotla and Xapatlapo made a pact with the god Tlaloc. After a ceremonial sacrifice and the consumption of a thousand infants, all who partook of the grizzly feast were reshaped into snakelike forms, with those who consumed the largest portions most changed.  These changes bred true, and the ophidian priests continued to rule the two cities, passing the mantle of leadership to their direct descendants. The monsters of Alocotla spread into the countryside, diluting their tainted blood with the remaining humans, eventually drawing all of them into the cold embrace of the serpent-men. The human aspects of the yuan-ti of this nation have Olman traits, while their snake parts are predominately dark green with red or black patterns. [SB – 47]

Like its sister city Alocotla, Xapatlapo was turned into a city of Yuan-ti after swearing a dark pact with Tlaloc. They, too, crawled and slithered into the most remote villages of Xapatlapo and corrupted the flesh of the people. [SB – 54]
Had the Olman not sailed into the unknown west they might had long ago been lost. Subsumed.

-1100 to -1000 CY
Subsumption was not their only threat. The Kundali had every desire to rid the world of a people that would court ancient elder evils. Little did the Kundali know that most Olman city-states were of the same mind.
[T]he war [with the Kundali] did not stop the Olman states from fighting each other [.] [SB – 36]

The capture and conversion of two of the Olman city-states into yuan-ti communities wounded the Olman morale, and eventually a large number of Olmani migrated to the north end of Hepmonaland and onto the Tilvanot peninsula and Olman Islands, with most settling in the Amedio jungle. [SB – 36]

c. -1050 CY
The Yuan-ti
But the Olman city-states were losing their wars on all fronts.
Ichamamna was originally an Olman city dedicated to the god Quetzalcoatl. The decadence and snake-worship of this city first attracted the attention of the Touv people, and Ichamamna was the first city to fall to the might of the warriors of the Kingdom of Kunda. The Touv took over the city and reconsecrated it in the name of their own gods, then attacked their northern neighbor, Xapatlapo, with aid from the Touv warriors of Tolanok. When the yuan-ti proved intractable, the Touv continued westward around the serpent city to drive the remaining Olman out. [SB – 49]
It was only a matter of time before they were in full retreat.
Jolan was […] the second territory conquered after Ichamamna. Early skirmishes against Tolanok convinced most of the Olman there to abandon their homes, and the settlers of Jolan quickly turned to working their land instead of fighting for it. [SB – 50]

c. -1000 CY
Just as the Flan were migrating into the Pomarj, so too were the Olman beginning their mass migration from Hepmonaland unto the Olman Islands, and into the Amedio jungle, and beyond, into the southern seas.
They had little choice. The Tuov struck back at the warlike Olman, loath to accept their northern neighbour’s raids and subsequent slaughters any longer. And as the Tuov pressed the Olman ever further back into their jungles, they were horrified to discover the dark depravities the Olman had sunk to.
An Abandoned Civilisation
Internal strife and wars with another human race, the dark Touv, caused them to abandon their old cities. Many Olman migrated to the Amedio, where they maintained their civilization for several more centuries.
[LGG – 6]
The Kundali had little trouble sacking the remaining Olman cities, usually driving the survivors into the wilderness. [SB – 36]
Although most Olman fled Hepmonaland when invading Tuov proved too strong, those of Alocotla stayed and fought, managing to retain control of much of their territories. They fought occasional wars against the neighboring city-states, spied on their Xapatlapoan cousins, and seemed mostly content to rule their own lands. [SB – 47]

Cuhuetla was one of the last Olman holdouts in Hepmonaland. When its defending warriors were overwhelmed by Touv forces, the city surrendered and was immediately occupied by Touv forces. Generally a benign man, the King of Kunda’s edicts to the occupied nation mainly banned worship of Olman gods and violent acts. [SB – 49]
The last Olmani to traverse the seas were the men and women who fled to the Amedio a thousand years ago. [SB – 37]
Not all Olman abandoned Hepmonaland, though. Some remained. Presumably those who could not escape.

-720 CY
Newly Conquered Lands
Or those who refused to go willingly. Indeed, those Olman who remained fought the Touv with the ferocity of the jaguar, and the stealth and speed of the viper, until the Tuov feared the twilight under the jungle canopy. But the Tuov would not be pressed back out of their hard gained territory. They raised crenelated walls and palisades, redouts and fortresses as the pushed ever forward, eager to be rid of the Olman once and for all. Until they could push no more. (689 TC)
As the Tuov swept north to drive out the Olman, they built fortifications to defend their newly conquered lands. The northernmost fort was Anatal, built in -720 CY at the base of the Fyalo hills, at the edge of the jungle close to the sea.  [SB – 47]
The Xapatlapoans resisted the Tuov attempts to drive them out during the Olman exodus [.] [SB – 54]

-700s CY
In the course of time, the Olman were depleted, with only a remnant remaining of the nation that was. So few remained that many Tuov believed that they were no more.
After several years of encountering no hostile Olman, [Touv] prospectors discovered a strong vein of platinum. This caused a huge influx of prospectors and miners into [Anatal’s] environs, and in short order the place grew into a small city. While the platinum ran out more quickly than expected, several stable gem mines had been established and kept the city alive, supplemented by trading rare spices and plentiful food grown in the rich soil. [SB – 47]

-505 CY
Without a common enemy it was only a matter of time before Kundi would fall upon their own.
[T]he Prince of Vay Nama (“ugly border”) has always had an eye toward acquiring more land, and has attacked the southern border of Kevot on more than one occasion, which resulted in its prince being replaced and the city put under martial law by the King in -505 CY. [SB – 54]

-447 CY
Events in the west were soon to affect the east. Some Suel were disenchanted with the state of their State and sought refuge far from their beloved emperor and his war.
Zellifar-ad-Zol, son of the Emperor, mage/high priest of Beltar, breaks with his father and takes over 8,000 Suloise loyal to himself, and flees the kingdom, eastward. [OJ11 – 59]
Where would he lead these 8,000 refugees? Into the unknown? Perhaps. But doubtful. The Suel had long ago ventured out of their vast valley, to explore, to trade, to conquer and enslave. Surely theu had ports and post, waystations and settlements. Surely these Suel would have fled there. Wouldn’t they?

-441 CY to -423 CY
Zellifar’s refugees headed east.  Along the Keoland coast, the shores of the Woolly Bay, onward to Onnwal and Idee. Even unto the Tilevnot.
The Zolites scatter the Flannae before them, and move south to the Tilvanot Peninsula. [OJ11 – 59]

-422 CY
The Rain of Colourless Fire
Things were about to change in the Flanaess. That distant war waged by the Suloise and Bakluni were to have far-reaching effect. As no war had had before. And by consequence, things were soon to change in Hepmonaland, as well, because of it.
Invoked Devastation and Rain of Colourless Fire Strike
When the Invoked Devastation came upon the Baklunish, their own magi brought down the Rain of Colorless Fire in a last terrible curse, and this so affected the Suloise Empire as to cause it to become the Sea of Dust. [Folio – 5]
When the Rain of Colorless Fire ended the Age of Glory and brought down the Empire, the tribes [of the Suloise] decided to seek their fate to the east, in the lands of the Flan. [WoGG – 61]

“Nothing is so painful to the human mind as a great and sudden change.”
― Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Frankenstein

One must always give credit where credit is due. This History is made possible primarily by the Imaginings of Gary Gygax and his Old Guard, Lenard Lakofka among them, and the new old guards, Carl Sargant, James Ward, Roger E. Moore. And Erik Mona, Gary Holian, Sean Reynolds, Frederick Weining. The list is interminable.
Special thanks to Jason Zavoda for his compiled index, “Greyhawkania,” an invaluable research tool.

The Art:
Jungle, from Tomb of Annihilation, 2017 
Dakon, by Alan Hunter, from Fiend Folio, 1981
Southern Hepmonaland map, by Sam Wood, from The Scarlet Brotherhood, 2000
The South Seas detail, by Darlene, from World of Greyhawk Folio, 1980
Troglodyte, by David C. Sutherland III, from Monster Manual 1e, 1977, 1978
Quetzalcoatl, from Deities & Demigods, 1980
Mictlantecuhtli, by Jeff Dee, from Deities & Demigods, 1980
The Ancient Flannae, by David A. Roach, from The Adventure Begins, 1998
The Azure Sea detail, by Darlene, from World of Greyhawk Folio, 1980
Serpent god, by David C. Sutherland, from Deities & Demigods, 1980
The Yuan-ti, by Erol Otus, from I1 Dwellers of the Forbidden City, 1981
The Rain of Colourless Fire, by Erol Otus, from World of Greyhawk Folio, 1980

1015 World of Greyhawk Boxed Set, 1983
1064 From the Ashes Boxed Set, 1992
1068 Greyhawk Wars Boxed Set, 1991
2011A Dungeon Masters Guide, 1st Ed., 1979
2023 Greyhawk Adventures, 1988
9025 World of Greyhawk Folio, 1980
9046 I1 Dwellers of the Forbidden, 1980
11374 The Scarlet Brotherhood, 1999
11742 Gazetteer, 2000
11743 Living Greyhawk Gazetteer, 2000
Dragon Magazine #63, 209
Dungeon Magazine #77
Oerth Journal #1, 11
Greychrondex, Wilson, Steven B.
Greyhawkania, Jason Zavoda
The map of Anna B. Meyer

Friday, 24 March 2023

Castle Greyhawk – The Comic Strip

“The ending is nearer than you think, and it is already written. All that we have left to choose is the correct moment to begin.”
― Alan Moore, V for Vendetta

Castle Greyhawk
Is Castle Greyhawk the quintessential soul of the Greyhawk setting? It was, once. Indeed, Castle Greyhawk was likely all there was originally. Or so I surmise. Paint a picture, if you will, of a certain (then obscure) man at the head of a table, a motely crew of friends and family gathered about him, hanging on his every word as he described what they “saw” and “heard” in their minds’ eye: dark and dank passages, torches crackling, distant footfalls, howls and growls in the distance.
So it began, with scribbled notes, a few mazes penciled on a page, and a whole lot of clattering of dice. Granted, there was a whole history leading up to that moment: boardgames and wargames, an idea that a “player” might control a single figure (call him a character) and not an infantry or cavalry division, and a love of classic sword and sorcery fiction… Where did all this lead? To Arneson’s Blackmoor and Gygax’s Greyhawk. And adventurers delving deeply into a maze infested with monsters. Combat and Treasure. Rinse and repeat.

There have been a few Castle Greyhawks since. None are Gary Gygax’s original; thus, one might argue than none are “definitive.” I expect those iconic first levels are lost to time.  Since then, there have been a few stabs at giving the people what they want, the definitive dungeon, to varying degrees of success, I might add: the much maligned WG7 Castle Greyhawk; minor mention made in the City of Greyhawk Boxed Set, if no details other than the environs surrounding it; then the first serious attempt to create what was lost, WGR1 Greyhawk Ruins, a decidedly Monte Haul module by reputation. Gary Gygax then gave us what some might call the most definitive version, his incomplete, and now out-of-print, Castle Zygyg – I say most definitive because it comes from Gary himself, and who could argue that its original creator is/was the final authority on how that famed dungeon was laid out, and what might have lurked in it (that said, his Castle Zygyg may only be a reimagining of that original dungeon if he lost his original maps and notes years before its publication). One might argue that the real ruins is now Expedition to the Ruins of Greyhawk, it being the newest, and maybe the most detailed. I might mention that Joe Bloch of Greyhawk Grognard fame has created his own version: The Castle of the Mad Archmage, available on DriveThruRPG.
What I refer to here is none of these.

Adventuring with Yrag
Long ago, in a fandom far, far away (2006), Scott Casper penned a "fanfiction novella called 'Castle Greyhawk' out of his love for the World of Greyhawk, even though his art skills sucked too bad to make a comic stip. You can find his work here." His words, not mine.
"In 2005 Mike Bridges started making the W.O.G comic strip out of his love for both comics and the World of Greyhawk. You can find his work here." His words, not mine.
Fortuitously, they found one another. They began what I’m drawing your attention to: a serial Graphic novel, found here.
What’s it about? Tenser’s early days, his association with Yrag, then Robilar and Teril, and Serten and Merlyn and Mordenkainen. There’s even a side story concerning Erac and Erac’s Cousin sandwiched within.
Is it canon? I don’t know; probably not, most likely not, but it feels canonical, so some of what unfolds within its panels might very well have been gleaned from discussion with Rob Kuntz, and maybe the dearly departed Mr. Gygax himself. If not, no matter; it’s a story. It’s not half bad, either. It’s not Alan Moore, but it does not pretend to be, either. It’s a work of fan fiction, and it deals with a very specific subject: adventuring, and Castle Greyhawk. In that, it succeeds where WG7 most certainly failed; it takes the dungeon and the exploration of it seriously, adding insight into iconic player characters from the dawn of D&D. Who could ask for more?

Castle Greyhawk, Absolute Edition
You could ask for a compilation of this work in print, I suppose. You’re in luck! You can have your cake and eat it too, it would seem. Sadly, its original print run has long expired, but it’s still out there. You might, if you are exceedingly lucky, find a copy on eBay, but I can’t say that I’ve ever seen it available there (it may pop up there from time to time, but I wouldn’t hold my breath). It is available in POD form from, though. Hardback. That’s your best bet if you want a physical copy of this fanfiction gem.

Have I read it? I have. The online version on blogspot, anyway. (Here's the link, again.) I do not own a copy of the “Absolute Edition” as yet, so I cannot comment on the quality if its stock, its binding, or layout of the POD.
No matter, I invite you to peruse the blog, even if you decide to not purchase the POD. It’s Greyhawk fiction, after all.
If you're a completest, you will surely want this “chapter” of Greyhawk history on your bookshelves – you've no excuse not to if you purchased Rose Estes' “Mika” novels, even if you won’t admit to owning them – just sayin'.

“There's a time and place for everything, and I believe it’s called 'fan fiction'.”
― Joss Whedon

One must always give credit where credit is due. This post is made possible primarily by the Imaginings of Gary Gygax and his Old Guard, Lenard Lakofka among them, and the new old guards, Carl Sargant, James Ward, Roger E. Moore. And Erik Mona, Gary Holian, Sean Reynolds, Frederick Weining. The list is interminable.
Special thanks to Scott Casper and Mike Bridges for their labours of love.

The Art:
Selections from Castle Greyhawk, the Comic Strip, by Scott Casper and Mike Bridges, 2012-2019
Greyhawk Ruins, cover, by Fred Fields, from WGR1 Greyhawk Ruins, 1990
Castle Greyhawk – Absolute Edition cover, 2019

Castle Greyhawk, the Comic Strip, 2012-2019
Castle Greyhawk Absolute Edition, 2019

Friday, 17 March 2023

Thoughts on D2 Shrine of the Kuo-Toa

“I was nearly unnerved at my proximity to a nameless thing at the bottom of a pit.”
― H.P. Lovecraft, At the Mountains of Madness and Other Tales of Terror

D2 Shrine of the Kuo-Toa
What did we learn in D1 Descent Into the Depths of the Earth? That the caverns and crawlspaces under the spine of the world are not empty. And that they are vast, a veritable underdark world.
Using a map which depicts hundreds, of miles of passageways, the bold expedition delved into this underground labyrinth. Within a day‘s journey they had to fight first an outpost of the Dark Elves, then a pair of the dreaded “lllithids” of Drow speech – creatures called mind flayers, with a dozen wererat allies. Wending ever deeper into this weird underworld, the party overcame various and sundry obstacles only to enter a great cavern filled with hostile creatures. By clever tactics and hard fighting a conglomerate force of servants of the evil elves, bugbears, trogs, and trolls, along with various and sundry other monsters-were overcome. Valuable additional information and possibly useful items were also gained, and the expedition now presses on ever deeper, hot on the track of the Drow, bent on bringing a reckoning to these hateful foes. [D2 Shrine of the Kuo-Toa – 2]
We learned that bugbears abound beneath the surface, that troglodytes and trolls are as common as wererats, and that puddings and fungi of every colour under the sun slither and shriek in the dark. Mostly, we learned that the Drow are masters of their subterranean world. Although their mastery is not uncontested.
This fact will become even more apparent in D2 Shrine of the Kuo-Toa! Though liches treat with the dark elves, and Illithids plot against them, there are other races in the deep dark who neither bow nor kowtow to their supremacy; in fact, they thrive in spite of them; and in some cases, vie against them. You’d expect as much, wouldn’t you? No nation reigns supreme under the sun; why then would you expect otherwise in the depthless dark?

Who are these races? One such is hinted at in the title: The eponymous Kuo-Toa.
5e Kuo-Toa
The ancient Kuo-Toa People once inhabited the shores and islands of the upper world. As the race of mankind and its associate species grew more and more numerous and powerful, the men-fish were slowly driven to remote regions.
[D2 – 13]
Ancient, they are also evil.
ALIGNMENT: Neutral evil (chaotic tendencies) [D2 – 13]

Description: A Kuo-Toan presents a cold and horrid appearance. A typical specimen looks much as if a human body, albeit a paunchy one, had been covered with scales and topped with a fish's head squarely atop the shoulders. The huge fish eyes of the head tend to swivel in different directions when observing an area or creature. Hands and feet are very long, with three fingers and opposing digit, partially webbed. Legs and arms are short for the body size. Coloration is pale gray, with undertones of tan or yellow in males only, and the whole skin has a sheen from its slime covering. Color darkens when the individual is angry, or pales when the creature is badly frightened. [D2 – 15]

That sounds familiar, doesn’t it? It’s almost like I’ve read similar descriptions before.
The Deep Ones
I think their predominant color was a greyish-green, though they had white bellies. They were mostly shiny and slippery, but the ridges of their backs were scaly. Their forms vaguely suggested the anthropoid, while their heads were the heads of fish, with prodigious bulging eyes that never closed. At the sides of their necks were palpitating gills, and their long paws were webbed. They hopped irregularly, sometimes on two legs and sometimes on four. I was somehow glad that they had no more than four limbs. Their croaking, baying voices, clearly used for articulate speech, held all the dark shades of expression which their staring faces lacked ... They were the blasphemous fish-frogs of the nameless design—living and horrible.
[The Shadow Over Innsmouth – H.P. Lovecraft]

I think that these things were supposed to depict men—at least, a certain sort of men; though the creatures were shewn disporting like fishes in the waters of some marine grotto, or paying homage at some monolithic shrine which appeared to be under the waves as well. Of their faces and forms I dare not speak in detail; for the mere remembrance makes me grow faint. Grotesque beyond the imagination of a Poe or a Bulwer, they were damnably human in general outline despite webbed hands and feet, shockingly wide and flabby lips, glassy, bulging eyes, and other features less pleasant to recall. Curiously enough, they seemed to have been chiselled badly out of proportion with their scenic background; for one of the creatures was shewn in the act of killing a whale represented as but little larger than himself. [Dagon – H.P. Lovecraft]

Gary Gygax’s Kuo-Toa are most assuredly an au mage to Lovecraft’s Deep Ones (even if he declared otherwise). Sinister, evil beings long ago defeated and displaced by the creatures of Good and Weal.
1e Fiend Folio Kuo-Toa
Continual warfare upon these evil, human-sacrificing creatures threatened to totally exterminate the species, for a number of powerful beings were aiding their sworn enemies, mankind. Some [Kuo]-Toans sought refuge in sea caverns and secret subterranean waters, and while their fellows above were being slaughtered, these few prospered and developed new characteristics to match their lightless habitats.
[D2 – 13]
None of this is known, of course; or ought not to be. The Kuo-Toa had long ago eschewed the bright world above, never to return, it is surmised. They’ve adapted to their subterranean world.
Now the Kuo-Toa People are haters of sunlight and are almost never encountered on the surface of the earth. [D2 – 13]
Why might they? To gather slaves, of course. Why else?
Kuo-toan War Party: These creatures will occasionally go forth to capture slaves or raid a group that is hostile to their kind or has given offense to Sea Mother. [D2 – 5]

It goes without saying that the heroes will come face to face with these ancient fish-men, but Gary would never be so cruel as to throw the PCs into the deep end, so to speak, without their having tested the waters first. As he did in G3 with the Drow. This is not to say that said encounter would be easy. “Not without peril” could easily be attributed to any of Gary’s adventure modules. This one is no different.
Introduction to that initial encounter is familiar enough: A deep, dark, dank tunnel, an obstacle that requires crossing.
The surface [of the Svartjet River,
ENCOUNTER AREA W27] is very smooth here, as the channel is over 80’ deep. On the far bank, in the cove shown, is moored an 8’x 14’ barge with a sculling oar. This barge is operated by a Kuo-Toon of great size and strength [.] [D2 – 6]
The noise of the river will mask normal sounds from the hearing of the Kuo-Toan, but bright light in the cavern will certainly attract his attention. He will come forth and offer in the common speech of the underworld to take the party across for the proper fee each. [D2 – 6]
The PCs encounter an unfamiliar creature. Will it be “friendly”? It might be.
The solitary Kuo-Toan does not care who or what he transports. [D2 – 6]
The creature is just going about its business, after all. Coin in coin. But communication with this hitherto unknown creature will be an obstacle, in its own right, without some sort of aid or intervention. Failure has its price, as they say.
Each time he repeats this offer (and it will not be understood by the party without magical aid or an interpreter), he has a 10% cumulative chance of going berserk and attacking. [D2 – 6]
Will this deranged Kuo-Toa fight fair? Not likely.
Thoopshib may be unbalanced, but he is very sly. [D2 – 6]
He will use terrain and the river to his advantage. And “allies.”
If the barge is threatened or attacked, he will leap into the Svartjet and summon his only companion, a giant gar over 30’ long with AC 2 and 65 hit points. [D2 – 6]
Our heroes will have to make up their minds concerning this new species based on their encounter with Thoopshib. I expect that first impression will not be good, regardless how communication went. Thoopshib will presumably give off a creepy negative vibe. Which will also colour their reaction later, while crossing the Kuo-Toan shrine, I imagine.

The other race introduced in D2 is the Deep Gnomes, the Svirfnebli.
Far beneath the surface of the earth dwell the Svirfnebli, the Deep Gnomes, a race related to the gnomes of the bright world. [D2 – 16]
This first contact should be more benign.
ALIGNMENT Neutral (good tendencies) [D2 – 16]

If the party stops and searches the area – or calls out in friendly terms – the Svitfnebli leader will show himself and offer the peace sign, recognizing the party as creatures from the upper world. He will converse in sign language, or speak normally if some magical means of communication/understanding is available. If the adventurers offer fewer than 1 100 g.p. gem per Deep Gnome, and agree to going "halfies" on any others taken, the Svirfnebli will certainly agree to accompany the party to the shrine cavern. [D2 – 7]
This will be the best stroke of luck the PCs could hope for.
The Deep Gnomes hate the Kuo-Tuo People as much as they despise the Drow, and this group has spied upon the shrine, for they are prospecting in the area. [D2 – 7]
Unexpected Allies
If the party does not have some help, I expect crossing the Kuo-Toan shrine could turn into a bit of a battle-royale. Or not, depending on the players’ style of play. Bright players ought to have learned through hard experience that hack-and-slash was a fast track to rolling up a new character in 1st edition. They ought to have learned that stealth, guile, and negotiation was a quicker, and less painful path to success. One could find “common ground” with orcs and hobgobins if one played one’s cards right and spoke with the tribal leaders and greased a palm of two for safe passage through their demesne; or one could try to clear out their cavern complex and suffer the consequences of having to rest up for days recovering lost hitpoints, if their survived the ordeal. Their call, but one imagines that players learned through experience, much as their characters were supposed to.

Much like D1 before it, this is a short module. D2 consists of two short encounters and a main encounter area. And in that regard, it may well feel exactly like the prior, like a tournament module. It may not repeat, but it certainly does rhyme.
Indeed, the Wandering Monster table are identical, except for a few swap-outs: Illithids and bugbears and Jermaine for Kuo-Toa.
The Shrine of Blibdoolpoolp
Aside from that, despite their near identical natures, D1 and D2 could not be more different. The Deep Gnomes, although Neutral, tend towards good, and could offer succour to the party – something I doubt the Drow merchant of D1 is inclined to, regardless his life being spared by their intervention. And however nerve-wracking crossing the bugbear and troglodyte exclave might have felt in D1, I suspect that might feel like a walk in the park when compared with that of the Kuo-Toan shrine. There was likely little fidelity between the amassed bugbears and trogs, aside from the hegemony of the Drow; where here, the Kuo-Toa share common cause and religious fanaticism.
The party is met by a chilling scene when first they step far enough northwest to view the dimly lit space ahead. Greenish phosphorescence from lichens, coupled with a grayish luminosity from slug-like creatures as large as a man's fist which crawl everywhere (walls, ceilings, floors) give the area an undersea appearance, and a strange salt tang is in the air to enhance this impression. Directly to the north the adventurers will see a huge dark green creature, rather like a giant lobster-headed woman, with one pincer raised and the right extended ahead and open. […] The walls and pavement of this place are well-made, but very worn. Obviously, this area is old. It feels alien and foreboding. [D2 – 7]
I expect the description is meant to be as unnerving as was the Weird Abandoned Temple in G1, and it is, albeit in a different way: Where the former writhed with Elder Evil magnificence, here, the phosphorescence evokes a murky seabed. As is should, seeing that their goddess is a humanoid lobster woman.
IDOL OF BLIBDOOLPOOLP, SEA MOTHER: Upon the summit of the ziggurat stands a malachite statue 20' tall. It appears to be a nude human female body, with articulated shell covering the shoulders, and a lobster head and claws in place of the expected human head and arms. The right claw is open and raised, the left is open and held out about 8' above the floor of the tier. […] Blibdoolpoolp's name is carved into the base of the statue in Kuo-Toan characters. [D2 – 8]

On to the Vault of the Drow
The task at hand, if would seem, is simply to get through the shrine unscathed. That will be difficult without a guide who is already experienced with this bottleneck encounter area, but it is possible. That said, there a number of metaphorical “trip wires” in doing so, likely not avoided without said guide. I might mention that negotiating this bottleneck encounter area without their tripping a wire or two will be dull indeed. And what would be the fun in that? AD&D combat might have been perilous, but it was also a big part of what the game was designed around. I expect that the PCs will have to duke it out, though.
Can the party go around? They can, but it is a lengthy, and likely even more perilous, roundabout route. And that will probably expose them to as much combat as the shrine is sure to treat them to. Best not, knowing what they will soon be knee-deep in a den of decadence and evil intrigue!

“We shall dive down through black abysses...and in that lair of the Deep Ones we shall dwell amidst wonder and glory forever.”
― H.P. Lovecraft

One must always give credit where credit is due. This post is made possible primarily by the Imaginings of Gary Gygax and his Old Guard, Lenard Lakofka among them, and the new old guards, Carl Sargant, James Ward, Roger E. Moore. And Erik Mona, Gary Holian, Sean Reynolds, Frederick Weining. The list is interminable.

The Art:
D2 cover, by David C. Sutherland III, from D2 Shrine of the Kuo-Toa, 1979
Kuo-Toa, from Monster Manual 5e, 2014
Kuo-Toa, by Alan Hunter, from Fiend Folio 1e, 1981
Thoopshib, from D2 Shrine of the Kuo-Toa, 1979
Svirfneblin, by Russ Nicholson, from Fiend Folio 1e, 1981
Svirfneblin Meeting, by David C. Sutherland III, from D2 Shrine of the Kuo-Toa, 1979
D1-2 cover, by Jim Roslov, from D1-2 Descent into the Depths of the Earth, 1981
Underdark, by Erol Otus, from D1-2 Descent into the Depths of the Earth, 1981

9025 World of Greyhawk Folio, 1980
1015 World of Greyhawk Boxed Set, 1983
2009 Monster Manual 1e, 1977, 1978
2011 Players Handbook 1e, 1978
2011A Dungeon Masters Guide, 1st Ed., 1979
9018 G3 Hall of the Fire Mountain King, 1978
9019 D1 Descent Into the Depths of the Earth, 1978
9058 G123 Against the Giants, 1978, 1981